Agricultural Techniques


Lemongrass is grown and processed for its essential oil, which is sold between $15-$20 per kilogram and is commonly used in perfumes, air fresheners, and other fragrance products. The plant has a simple propagation process and is ready to be harvested three months after planting. The distillation process produces roughly two kilograms of oil from 300 kilograms of lemongrass after an hour and a half of processing. The scented water, a byproduct from the distillation process, is often collected and sold to hotels on the mainland, which use the water to wash their linens.


Animal milking in Mongolia starts with a unique process attribute. During the milking process, the animals are not immediately approached; instead, a baby is brought to the mother to start feeding. After the baby has started the milking process, the baby is led away and the manual milking process takes over. While this process is similar in all the communities, each community has different procedures for the manual aspect of milking their respective animal. (see Figure 1)


There are several globally significant purposes of the tree planting process at Gobyn Undur. The first is to reduce desertification. The second is to provide food to local grazing animals. The third is to produce local business and employment. All of these issues are being addressed with the planting of saksaul trees in the Gobi Desert.


Pepper is one of the products grown, processed, and exported by Pacific Spices. The methods used at all stages ensure the organic quality of the product.


In the community of Alakasam, the harvesting, drying, and selling of peanuts is the primary source of income. Generally speaking, peanuts are grown in gardens among other crops or between harvest seasons to replenish the nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil. Using the funds raised from peanut sales, the community of Alakasam has been able to purchase a Land Cruiser and another truck that are left at Malasaet, the closest community accessible by vehicles. As a result, the travel time to market from Malasaet is reduced to roughly a three hour drive.


Patchouli is grown and processed for its essential oil. This oil is frequently used as the base for many perfumes. The processing of patchouli oil at Pacific Spices has produced a higher purity form of patchouli oil than is typically found in the market. In fact, Pacific Spices has been asked by their customers to “dirty up” their patchouli oil a bit because the high quality of their oil makes it unrecognizable and harder to use in perfume production. Both the distillation and separation process affords the production of two products, the oil and scented water.


Many of the communities of Papua New Guinea are located in mountainous regions with very little level land available. However, these communities have adapted their agricultural techniques to accommodate the existing terrain. This knowledge has been developed through centuries of experience living and farming the mountainous terrain of the country. Because working in the garden is an activity that involves the entire community, all community members have an understanding of hillside farming techniques.


Guayusa (family: Aquifoliacae; genus: Ilex) (also known as aguayusa, wayusa, wayus, huayusa, guañusa, waiyoosa, guayyusa, wausa, wais (Shuar language), wuís (Shuar language), emonteibiquime (Huoarani language), kopíniuk (Záparo language)) is a shade-grown, perennial Amazonian holly tree that grows as a shrub or small tree under the forest canopy of other native tree species from southern Colombia to northern Peru. In Ecuador, it is known to be present in the provinces of Sucumbíos, Napo, Pastaza, Morona Santiago, and Zamora Chinchipe, but has also been found up to 2000 meters along the Eastern foothills of the Andes. The plant grows naturally in the area and is (or was) cultivated by a variety of indigenous groups, including the following: Napo Runa (Quichua), Canelos Runa (Quichua), Quijos Runa (Quichua), Shuar, Achuar, Záparo, Shiwiar, Omagua, Kokama, Pánoba, Kaschibo, Koto, Pioché, Lamisto, Kichos, Kanelo, Aguano, Kandoschi, Sssabela, Chívaro, Mayoruna, Tshayahuita, Tschamakiro, Chebero, Omurana, Yagua, Auischiri, Ssimaku, Ikito, Yameo and Pintsche.


Agricultural techniques vary along with the terrain of the coastal and mountainous regions of East New Britain. These variations in techniques relate both to the physical differences in terrain and also to the cultural differences of the people who traditionally inhabit these regions.


Pacific Spices has expanded their coconut oil processing to other areas of the East New Britain province. Currently they are transporting coconuts to the Vunakanau facility from the Induna plantation and various other locations across East New Britain. This involves shipping all of the organic material (husk, nut, and liquid) at considerable energy and transportation cost. To reduce costs of labor and to shorten the time between coconut de-husking and processing, processing facilities are currently being set up at the Induna Plantation.