Construction, Traditional Items, Agricultural Techniques, Natural Remedies, Industrial Processes, Hunting Techniques, Household Items, Cooking Techniques


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Arlatka is a tree that grows in the mountain ranges of East New Britain. (see Figure 1)


As an indigenous plant of Papua New Guinea, anuknuk can be found in abundance in personal gardens and the wild. It is a leafy plant that grows about 20 centimeters tall and has circular leaves about 5 centimeters in diameter (see Figure 1). It is used to sharpen memory. Frequently, parents add a few leaves to their children's lunches to help with brain function.


Animal milking in Mongolia starts with a unique process attribute. During the milking process, the animals are not immediately approached; instead, a baby is brought to the mother to start feeding. After the baby has started the milking process, the baby is led away and the manual milking process takes over. While this process is similar in all the communities, each community has different procedures for the manual aspect of milking their respective animal. (see Figure 1)


The solar dryer at Pacific Spices is constructed similarly to a green house and utilizes the heat from the sun to dry the contents (see Figure 1). All of the products that need to be dried at Pacific Spices are dried in the solar dryer.


Distilling alcohol from milk products is a long-standing tradition in the Selenge province as well as many other parts of the Mongolian countryside. While goat milk is used most often, cow or sheep milk can also be used. Horse milk, however, is not distilled, as the resulting product is green.


In the community of Matupit, the Megapode egg serves as a primary source of food and income. Each day men from the village travel to the nesting grounds of the Megapode birds to gather the eggs. Because Matupit is the only place to find Megapode eggs, most customers come to Matupit to collect their orders. While some individuals sell their eggs at a market, it is more common for transactions to be made in the village itself. Each individual egg is priced at 2 Kina (just under US$1); however, the eggs are generally sold in groups of four (see Figure 1).


In Raluana, small fish traps are used for fishing on coral reefs. They are made using organic materials such as cane, cocoa branch twine, gaga leaves and some type of anchor (generally a small stick roughly 2.5 cm in diameter and about 15 cm long). Often times, these traps are baited using fruits like coconuts and papayas, and the anchor is buried or secured to the coral to keep it from moving in the current. The fish are lured into the traps and are stuck by the thorns of the cane stalks preventing them from escaping.


Traps are used by the Qaqet people to catch wild animals for consumption. There are a number of different traps for different types of prey, however, the two most commonly used are Bandicoot and Cassowary traps. Both utilize materials found in their immediate surroundings and are therefore the most common method of hunting. Usually a large number of traps are set at once, which are then periodically checked by the hunter, sometimes being left for days at a time.


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Members of the Qaqet communities use two types of umbrellas. One type is used for protection from the elements. Often times, while walking, they are faced with inclement weather or intense sunlight. Since the umbrella is made with readily accessible materials (leaves and bark string), they are able to quickly assemble the umbrella as needed. The other type of umbrella is commonly used for marking and protecting personal property.


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Tambu is the traditional form of money in the Tolai community. To make it, large numbers of a specific snail shell are collected, dried, and strung on a very thin piece of cane. At one time, these snails were prevalent along the coast of East New Britain. The people of Raluana would simply anchor a rotten piece of fruit in the shallows of the reef, leave it for a few hours and could expect to collect hundreds of these snails. However, following the volcanic eruptions of 1994 and 2006, the temperature of the water in the area rose causing these shelled animals to relocate to cooler waters.